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Guide to Sculpture

South Gardens:

Fountain of Energy (center) - A. Stirling Caller
Directly opposite the main entrance, the most conspicuously placed fountain in the grounds. The four major figures in the bowl represent the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the two Arctic oceans. The minor eight figures suggest the marine character of the fountain. The reclining figures on the sphere typify the two hemispheres. The youth on horseback represents energy and strength.

The Mermaid (fountains in long pools) - Arthur Putnam
The same figure is used twice, near the Horticultural Palace on the west and Festival Hall on the east.

Equestrian Statue, "Cortez" - Charles Niehaus
Guarding the Tower of Jewels. This statue represents the great Spanish conqueror. As one faces the tower, this figure is on the left.

Equestrian Statue of "Pizarro" - Charles Cary Rumsey
Similar in type and feeling to the preceding statue on the right, in front of the Tower of Jewels.

Horticultural Building:

Frieze at Base of the Spires - Eugene Louis Boutier
Loose arrangement of standing female figures surrounding the bases of the spires on all sides of the Horticultural Palace, with no other meaning than that of decoration.

Pairs of Caryatides - John Bateman
Architectural vertical members supporting the pergola around the Horticultural Palace. Used also on the Young Women's Christian Association and the Press buildings, near the main entrance.

Tower of Jewels:

Statues of "Priest," "Soldier," "Philosopher," and "Adventurer" - John Flanagan
Four figures suggestive of the forces which influenced the destinies of our country. Very big in scale - about twice life size. They are standing on a row of columns below the cornice on the tower and are repeated on all four sides.

The Armored Horseman (Terrace of the Tower) - F. M. L. Tonetti
A decorative equestrian statue on the lower terrace of the tower above the preceding figures - repeated sixteen times.

Tower Colonnades:

Fountain of Youth (east end) - Edith Woodman Burroughs
Snugly placed inside the abutting walls, east of the Tower of Jewels. Naive in character and simple in treatment, without any further symbolical meaning than that suggested by the name. Motif in side panels, "Ship of Life."

Fountain of El Dorado (west end) - Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney
In position similar to the preceding, west of the Tower of Jewels. A triptych of dramatic expression, naturalistically treated.

Festival Hall:

Figure crowning the minor Domes - Sherry E. Fry
A standing finial figure, on the minor domes, of graceful pose.

Two groups in front of the Pylons - Sherry E. Fry
Practically conceived as wall fountains, they are composed of the figure of a girl, suggesting the joy of life, emphasized by young Pan, with a lizard, at the base on the left, and a seated young girl on the right.

Cartouche over the entrance (figures only) - Sherry E. Fry
An architectural unit over the big arch of the main central dome, outside the building, for decorative effect.

Reclining figures on Pylons - Sherry E. Fry
A male and a female figure, reclining, crowning the architectural units projecting into the South Gardens. Suggestive of life and pleasure.

Court of Palms:

Equestrian statue, "The End of the Trail" - James Earl Fraser
At the entrance of the Court of Palms, off the main avenue opposite the Horticultural Palace. Symbolical figure, representing the destinies of the vanishing red race; to be considered in connection with the "Pioneer" at the entrance of the Court of Flowers.

The Fairy (Italian Towers - Palms and Flowers) - Carl Grupp
A figural termination of the four towers guarding the entrances to the Courts of Palms and of Flowers.

Caryatides - John Bateman and Mr. Calder
Winged half-figure in the attic-space, repeated all around the court.

Spandrels - Albert Weinert
Reclining decorative figures composed into the triangular spaces over all the doorways in the corridor.

Court of Flowers:

Equestrian statue, "The Pioneer" - Solon Borglum
At the entrance of this court. Representing the white man and his victorious civilization. (To be studied with "The End of the Trail.")

Lions (at the entrances) - Albert Laessle
Very conventional architectural decorative animal forms at the entrance inside the Court of Flowers - used six times.

The Fairy (above the Italian Towers) - Carl Gruppe
[See Fairy under Court of Palms by the same artist.]

Central Fountain, "Beauty and the Beast" - Edgar Walter
Decorative fountain inside the court, with crowning figure of a young woman, reposing on a fabulous beast.

Flower Girls (in niches) - A. Stirling Calder
Repeated figures, conventionally treated, of young women, decorated profusely with flower garlands, in the attic space.

Court of Abundance:

Groups on the altar in the main tower - Chester Beach
These groups constitute the historical composition in the tower on the north side of the court. Beginning with the lower one, they represent the primitive ages, the middle ages, and modern times.

Group at column bases and finials - Leo Lentelli
Decorative figures. Used four times at the base of the shaft near the tower. A single finial figure of a girl with a bow is used on top of the same column.

Fountain of the Earth (central pool) - Robert I. Aitken
An architectural composition telling the story of human life in its many phases. The outstretched arms on the south side represent destiny giving and taking life.

Figures on top of the Arcade - Albert Weinert
Primitive men, with the pelican and deer; the mother with a child is repeated all around the court.

Aquatic Life (north extension) - Sherry B. Fry
A figure which might represent Neptune's daughter. This figure stands north of the tower in the open space toward the Marina below, between the Palaces of Transportation and Mines.

Court of the Universe:

The Nations of the East; The Nations of the West - A. Stirling Calder, Leo Lentelli, and Frederick C. R. Roth, collaborators.
Colossal groups on top of the two great arches, representing, in many types, Western and Eastern civilization.

Statues on columns (eastern and western arches) - Leo Lentelli
Winged statues standing on top of columns on the inside as well as the outside of the two great arches.

Spandrels, Pegasus - Frederick G. R. Roth
Triangular compositions spanning the arches, repeated on both sides.

Medallion - B. Bufano
Circular decorations of male figures on the left side of the arch without any meaning other than architectural effect.

Medallion - A. Stirling Calder
Same as above, of female figures, on the right side of the arches.

The Stars (colonnades) - A. Stirling Calder
Very conventional standing figure, with hands united above the head, forming a star with radiated head-dress, placed on the balustrades of buildings adjoining the court and in the avenue leading north from the court.

Frieze on corner pavilions, "Signs of the Zodiac" - Hermon A. MacNeil
Decorative friezes on four sides of the four corner pavilions, of mythological character.

Two fountains, "The Rising Sun" and "The Setting Sun" - Adolph A. Weinman
Two columns rising from fountain bowls and crowned by winged figures, of a woman, representing the Setting Sun, on the left, and of a winged male figure, the Rising Sun, on the right.

Four reclining figures, "The Elements" - Robert I. Aitken
At the head of the stairs leading into the sunken garden; on the left, near the Music Pavilion, "Fire;" on the right, "Water;" on the left, near the tower, "Air;" on the right, "Earth."

Two Groups - Paul Manship
Near the arches at the head of the steps, two figural groups. One is of female figures, suggesting pleasure; the other, music and art.

Western Plaza, in Front of Machinery Palace:

Monument, "Genius of Creation" - Daniel Chester French
Group of allegorical figures, suggestive of the development of the human race.

Court of the Four Seasons:

Four groups representing "The Seasons" - Furio Piccirilli
In niches. Southeast corner, "Winter;" northeast corner, "Fall;" southwest corner, "Spring;" northwest corner, "Summer."

The Harvest (above the half dome) - Albert Jaegers
Seated figure with a horn of plenty and other agricultural emblems.

Rain and Sunshine (figures on columns) - Albert Jaegers
Standing female figures on columns on either side of the half dome. Sunshine, holding a palm branch, is on the left, and Rain, holding up a shell, on the right.

Groups, "Feast of Sacrifice," on the pylons in the forecourt - Albert Jaegers
The two groups on top of the building, in which huge bulls predominate, led by a young woman and a young man; very decorative.

Fountain, "Ceres" - Evelyn Beatrice Longman
Situated halfway between the Court of the Four Seasons and the Marina, in an avenue leading north; architectural in character.

Spandrels (arcade) - August Jaegers
Reclining female figures above the arches at the west and east entrance of the Court of the Four Seasons.

Attic figures - August Jaegers
Standing decorative figures of architectonic feeling, in the attic above the preceding figures.

Varied Industries Palace:

Tympanum group in the doorway - Ralph Stackpole
Groups of men and women in the lunette of the ornate doorway on the south side.

Secondary group, doorway - Ralph Stackpole
Groups above the preceding one, showing Age transferring his burden to Youth.

Figure for niches, doorway (man with the pick) - Ralph Stackpole
A repeated figure of a miner, of relatively small scale, on the consoles in the doorway.

Figure for keystone in doorway - Ralph Stackpole
A small seated figure of a laborer, on the headstone.

Figure for niches, on the east façade of this Palace and of the Palace of Mines - Albert Weinert
Standing figure in niches above doors, also used in avenue leading into the Court of Abundance from the east.

West Wall of the Palaces (facing Fine Arts):

Motifs for wall niches ("Triumph of the Field" and "Abundance") - Charles R. Harley
Seated male and female figures surrounded by a great wealth of emblematic forms. The male represents "Triumph of the Field;" the female, "Abundance."

Figures on columns (flanking the half domes): Philosophy and Physical Vigor - Ralph Stackpole
A colossal figure of a youth, on top of free-standing columns on the west wall of the main buildings.

Palace of Fine Arts:

Standing figure, inside of the rotunda on top of columns - Herbert Adams

Figures in the attic of the rotunda - Ulric H. Ellerhusen
Standing females and males between architectural friezes immediately below the cupola of the dome.

Frieze on the altar - Bruno Louis Zimm
Figural frieze at the base of the rotunda facing the Laguna can only be seen from a great distance across the water.

Relief panels for the rotunda - Bruno Louis Zimm
Eight panels on the outside, of strictly architectural character, representing a procession, showing the development and influence of art.

Friezes around the base on the ground - Ulric H. Ellerhusen
Figures with garlands, used everywhere at the base of the building.

Figures on the flower boxes - Ulric H. Ellerhusen
Standing figures, looking inward, representing introspection.

Kneeling figure on the altar - Ralph Stackpole
The shrine of worship. That delicate small figure seen best from across the laguna in front of the rotunda.

North Façade, Main Group of Exhibit Palaces:

Figure for central niches, "Conquistador" - Allen Newman
A Spanish soldier, with helmet and sword and a large mantle.

Figure for side niches, "The Pirate" - Allen Newman
A coarsely shaped man, in small niches on the north side of the main buildings near the preceding one.

Column of Progress:

Bas-relief (four sides of the pedestal) - Isidore Konti
Four allegorical friezes depicting man's striving for achievement.

Finial group, "The Adventurous Bowman," frieze and decoration - Hermon A. MacNeil
The group on top of the column suggests man's supreme effort in life, the supporting frieze is "The Toilers."

Palace of Machinery:

Figures on columns (four "Powers") - Haig Patigian
Repeated large scale figures of men, representing the industries exhibited within the building.

Friezes for columns, vestibule - Haig Patigian
Decorative architectural figure compositions of similar subjects.

Spandrels (two pairs) - Haig Patigian
Reclining figures filling out the triangular spaces above the doors in the vestibule reflecting the purpose of the building.

Palace of Education:

Repeated figure within the Half Dome, of Thought - Albert Weinert
Standing figure of a maiden with a scroll inside the portal, repeated eight times.

Palace of Food Products:

Repeated figure within the Half Dome, "Physical Vigor" - Earl Cummings
Similar to that above, inside the Portal of Vigor, showing a standing young man, with an oak wreath.

Friezes and figures in niches, main south entrance (portals of the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Palaces) - Mahonri Young
Figures representing domestic life and industries like foundry work,
smithing, spinning, and sculpture. Figures in the niches: woman with
spindles and men with hammers.

Tympanum panels (north and south entrances of the Palace of Education) - Gustave Gerlach
Decorative panels above the doors outside of the building showing
maternal instruction.

Panels inlaid in the walls over the minor entrances
Pupils of the School of Sculpture of the Society of Beaux Arts
Architects and National Sculpture Society.

Decorative panels of school life and of science.

Figure, "Victory," on the gables of the palaces - Louis Ulrich
A winged figure used on top of all the palaces.

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