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|Copyright, 1914 by The Panama-Pacific International Exposition Co.
[Issued by Division of Exploitation Panama-Pacific International Exposition]
Facts about the 1915 Universal Exposition
The Panama-Pacific International Exposition has been authorized by Act of Congress of the United States as the nation's celebration of the construction and opening of the Panama Canal. It is officially located at San Francisco, State of California, the central and dominant harbor city of the Pacific Slope of North America. By Proclamation of the President of the United States the nations of the earth have been invited to participate therein.
The Exposition will be held in the year 1915, opening February 20th, closing December 4th, a period of 288 days.
On the day it opens it will represent an aggregate expenditure of about fifty million dollars.
The conduct of the enterprise is, by virtue of the Act of Congress, confided to the citizens of the State of California and of the City of San Francisco.
In April, 1910, at a mass meeting of the citizens of San Francisco, held in the Merchants Exchange Building, the first step was taken, when, in a space of two hours, a fund of $4,000,000 was raised by popular subscription. Later, by further pledges, this was increased to $7,500,000.
Amending their constitution, as an enabling act, the people of California voted upon themselves a tax levy of $5,000,000; and, amending their charter, the citizens of San Francisco voted upon the city a bond issue of $5,000,000. By Act of the State Legislature, the counties of the State were authorized to levy a tax of not to exceed six cents on the $100 assessed valuation for county displays, from which it is estimated will be derived approximately $3,000,000. Thus, a sum of about $20,000,000 has been raised entirely by the citizens of California, to enable them properly to perform the duties entrusted to them by the nation.
Actual construction work was publicly begun October 14, 1911, President Taft turning the first spadeful of earth; and on February 2, 1912, he made official proclamation of the celebration, inviting the nations to join therein.
The Panama Canal, by affording a more direct waterway for lines of ocean travel, will promote the commerce of the entire world, and thus advance the welfare of every nation. New areas of productivity will develop, and new commercial exchanges will be established.
The location of this Celebration on the line of what is termed "the meeting place of the East and West," will, therefore, best enable the Exposition to illustrate and emphasize the good work of the Canal, and must prove of the greatest geographical convenience to all countries and peoples.
The influence of the Canal upon the world's commerce and civilization has been embodied, in part, in the Plan and Purpose of the Exposition. It is made contemporaneous in character, universal in scope. Its conception is intended to embody the highest ideals of the American people. Its physical equipment is adequate, its architecture imposing and beautiful, its classification of exhibits comprehensive, and its power for good should be greater than that of any previous International Exposition.
Accepting the grave trust of constructing and operating this beneficent enterprise, with a full consciousness of the significance of the achievement to be commemorated, and the duty of so shaping the celebration so that it will be of the highest service to mankind, a managing organization was perfected.
The colossal task of planning, constructing and operating this great enterprise was entrusted to an organization selected as follows:
A committee of three, chosen by the people of San Francisco, selected a committee of three hundred, representative of the entire citizenry. That committee of three hundred selected a Board of Directors of thirty. The Board of Directors chose its own officers and began work.
Officials of Exposition:
The entire administrative work of the Exposition is vested in the President and the Board of thirty Directors. All these serve without compensation.
President - Charles C. Moore
Vice Presidents - Wm. H. Crocker, B. B. Hale, I. W. Helhnan, Jr., M. H. DeYoung, Leon Sloss, James Rolph, Jr.
Secretary - Rudolph J. Taussig
Treasurer - A. W. Foster
Executive Secretary - Joseph M. Cumming
General Attorney - Frank S. Brittain
Comptroller - Rodney S. Durkee
Traffic Manager - M. Mortensen
The entire executive work of the Exposition is entrusted to the President, the Director-in-Chief and the Directors of the four Divisions, as follows:
Director-in-Chief, - Dr. Frederick J. V. Skiff
Director. Div. Works: - Harris D. H. Connick
Director, Div. Concessions and Admissions, - Frank Burt
Director, Div. of Exhibits - Capt. Asher Carter Baker
Director, Div. of Exploitation - George Hough Perry
The Panama-Pacific International Exposition Commission of the State of California was appointed on February 19th, 1911, to have charge and control of the five million dollar fund raised in accordance with the Constitutional Amendment.
The members of the Commission are as follows:
Governor Hiram W. Johnson; Matt I. Sullivan, President, San Francisco; Arthur Arlett, Berkeley; Chester H. Rowell, Fresno, and Marshall Stimson, Los Angeles.
Secretary, Florence J. O'Brien.
Comptroller of Commission, Leo S. Robinson.
The work of the women of the State in connection with the Exposition has crystallized in the Woman's Board, which is a sub-committee of the Exposition. Officials of the Woman's Board:
Honorary President - Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst
President - Mrs. Frederick G. Sanborn
Mrs. John C. Bidwell, Mrs. Caroline Severance, Mrs. Irving M. Scott, Mrs. William H. Crocker, Mrs. John P. Swift, Mrs. Louis Sloss, Mrs. Emma Shafter Howard, Mrs. Berthe d'A Welch, Mrs. Mary C. Kincaid, Mrs. L. B. Moore
Mrs. Lovell White, Mrs. I. Lowenberg, Mrs. William Hinckley Taylor, Mrs. John P. Merrill, Mrs. Frank L. Brown.
Secretary - Mrs. Gaillard Stoney
Treasurer - Mrs. Philip E. Bowles
Assistant Treasurer - Mrs. Edwin B. Dimond
Auditor - Mrs. Charles W. Slack
Assistant in Dept. of Fine Arts - Mrs. Francis Carolan
Asst. in Dept. of Manufactures - Mrs. Philip E. Bowles
Asst. in Div. of Exploitation - Mrs. Ernest S. Simpson
Asst. in Dept. of Live Stock - Mrs. William Grant
Woman's State Organization:
The Woman's Board is forming auxiliaries in every county in the State, giving the women of the State an active association with the Exposition.
Up to the time of publication, the following foreign nations have accepted the invitation of the United States to participate in the Exposition:
Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chili, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Holland (The Netherlands), Honduras, Italy, Japan, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Panama, Persia, Peru, Portugal, Salvador, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, Venezuela.
The following nations have already selected their sites:
Bolivia - Dedicated a site June 12th, 1913. Horace G. Knowles, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Bolivia.
China - Dedicated a site October 24th, 1912. Dr. Chin-tao Chen, Commissioner.
Dominican Republic - Dedicated a site May 26th, 1913. Doctor Francisco J. Peynado, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Dominican Republic to the United States.
France - Dedicated a site September 5th, 1913. Albert Tirman, Roger Sandoz, Gaston de Pellerin de Latouche, Alfred Savy, Raphael Monnet, Commissioners.
Guatemala - Dedicated a site July 14th, 1913. Minister Joaquin Mendez, Commissioner.
Honduras - Dedicated a site July 14th, 1913. Minister Joaquin Mendez, Commissioner.
Holland - Dedicated a site December 11th, 1912. Jonkheer Loudon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary for the Netherlands.
Japan - Dedicated a site September 18th, 1912. Haruki Yamawaki, Goichi Takeda, Yoshikatsu Katayama, Commissioners.
Peru - Dedicated a site July 11th, 1913. Frederico Alphonso Pezet, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Peru to the United States.
Portugal - Dedicated a site November 26th, 1912. Honorable J. Batalha de Freitas, Portuguese Minister to China and Japan, Commissioner.
Argentine Republic - Dedicated a site June 23rd, 1913. Romulo S. Naon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Argentine Republic to the United States, Commissioner.
Sweden - Dedicated a site November 12th, 1912. Mr. John Hammar, Commissioner.
Denmark - Dedicated a site March 15th, 1913. Minister C. Brun, Commissioner. Lauro Muller, Commissioner.
Cuba - Dedicated a site on September 25th, 1913. Colonel Jose Portuondo Y Tamayo.
Panama - Dedicated a site on October 10th, 1913, the day which marked the celebration in honor of the removal of the last obstacle, the Gamboa dyke, and completed the Panama Canal. Senor Don J. E. LeFevre, First Secretary of Legation at Panama, Commissioner.
Persia - Dedicated a site on November 20th, 1913. Mirza Ah Kuhi Khan, charge d'Affaires of the Legation of Persia.
Up to the date of this publication the following States and Territories have accepted the invitation to participate and dedicated their sites:
Date of Amount
State Dedication Appropriated
Arizona --------- July 5, 1912
Hawaii ---------- May 8, 1912 --------- $100,000
Idaho ----------- March 22, 1912 ------- 100,000
Illinois -------- June 24, 1912 -------- 300,000
Indiana --------- Oct. 22, 1912 -------- 90,000
Kansas ---------- Oct. 29, 1913 -------- 40,000
Kentucky -------- June 20, 1912 --------
Massachusetts --- Feb. 4, 1913 --------- 250,000
Minnesota ------- Dec. 11, 1912 --------
Missouri -------- April 5, 1912 -------- 100,000
Montana --------- March 22, 1912 -------
Nebraska -------- May 8, 1912 ----------
Nevada ---------- March 14, 1912 ------- 100,000
New Jersey ------ June 17, 1912 -------- 200,000
New York -------- Nov. 29, 1912 -------- 700,000
North Dakota ---- Sept. 16, 1913 ------- 35,000
Ohio ------------ Oct. 10, 1912 --------
Oklahoma -------- Sep. 16, 1913 --------
Oregon ---------- March 14, 1912 ------- 175,000
Pennsylvania ---- July 5, 1912 --------- 300,000
The Philippines - March 30, 1912 ------- 250,000
South Dakota ---- March 30, 1912 -------
Utah ------------ March 22, 1912 ------- 50,000
Washington ------ March 22, 1912 ------- 175,000
West Virginia --- Nov. 29, 1912 -------- 75,000
Porto Rico ------ May 22, 1913 ---------
Wisconsin ------- Oct. 17, 1913 -------- 75,000
The Wonderful Site of the Panama-Pacific Exposition:
It is doubtful if, anywhere in the world, could be found a site for a great exposition which surpassed or even equalled this in its combination of accessibility, scenic beauty and advantages.
It is a natural amphitheatre with a floor about three miles long and from a third to a half-mile wide, backed by low hills, flanked at each end by Government reservations and fortifications and fronting for its whole length on the beautiful, blue San Francisco Bay. It lies just within the famous "Golden Gate." It is about two miles from the business center of San Francisco and on the hills behind it is the best residential district of the city. Magnificent mountain and marine views surround it, and whether the eye rests upon sea or shore or city height, there is the charm and thrill of impressive beauty.
The grounds comprise 635 acres, divided into three sections. In the center are grouped the eleven great Exhibit Palaces and Festival Hall. To the west, spreading fan-shaped along the bay, are located the Pavilions of Foreign Nations and the imposing Buildings of the States, while still beyond these are the Live-Stock Exhibit buildings and Race Track, covering 65 acres, the Aviation Field, and the Drill Grounds, capable of showing ten thousand troops in drill at one time. To the east of the Exhibit Palaces lie the sixty-five acres devoted to the Amusement Concessions.
Palaces, Courts and Gardens:
Imagine eight splendid Exhibit Palaces, separated by connecting Courts and Avenues, grouped together into a rectangle. In the center, place a spacious court, containing a sunken garden capable of seating seven thousand persons, - the "Court of the Universe." To the east of this, at the crossing of the avenues, place another principal Court, oriental in ornamentation,the "Court of Abundance;" to the west, a third main Court, occidental in significance, - the "Court of the Four Seasons." As if to bid the world, enter this charmed enclosure, wherein will be displayed the evidences of man's-high achievement, widen the avenues leading north to the lateral Courts into minor Courts, and call them respectively the "Court of Flowers" and the "Court of Palms." Where the Palaces border upon the Courts, modify the architecture so that their facades form the walls of the Courts. Adorn these vast Palaces and Courts with circling colonnades, magnificent archways, lofty towers, domes and minarets, dignify and grace them with heroic statuary, mural paintings, parterres and fountains.
On the south line, for a Main Entrance, over the avenue leading north to the Central Court, erect a circular, seven-storied tower, covering an acre of ground at the base and rising to a height of 433 feet, called the Tower of Jewels, the dominating feature of this architectural scheme. And now to the east of this compact group, place one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of Machinery, and to the west, curving to the shore of a lake, for eleven hundred feet, with colonnade and pergola, place the superb Palace of Fine Arts. On the south of this group of Palaces, plant a great Garden and in it set a crystal Palace devoted to Horticulture, and another domed structure, devoted to Conventions, Festival Hall. On the north, fill another great Garden, bordering the bay with shrubs and plants that are the tribute of two zones, divide it with driveways and walks, and in its center set a lofty column supporting figures typifying man's climb to success or fame. And then, pour over these wondrous Palaces a flood of harmonious colors, fill the Courts with California sunshine, and as the picture takes form, on your vision will rise the "Rainbow City" of the Panama-Pacific Exposition!
One of the most attractive and beautiful features of this Exposition will be the electrical illumination. By a system of flood lighting, a soft light will pervade the Courts at night, revealing the facades of the Palaces and the natural colors of the flowers. By peculiar and novel lighting devices, the statuary and mural paintings will be made to appear with even heightened effect. Concealed batteries of powerful projectors will cause tens of thousands of specially prepared glass "jewels," hung tremulous upon the towers, to flash like great diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. At a point on the bay shore will be erected steam fireworks that will be marvels of design and magnificence. And searchlights of great power will weave in the night sky auroras of ever-changing color. Altogether the spectacle will be interesting and wonderful.
Palace of Fine Arts:
Designed by B. E. Maybeck.
Its length from north to south describes an arc eleven hundred feet. In this classical structure will be assembled the notable paintings of the world. The Fine Arts Palace will face upon a great lagoon, from whose surface its quiet and beautiful architecture will be reflected. It will be a fireproof structure.
Designed by Robert Farquhar of Los Angeles.
The hall will contain seats for about three thousand people, a huge pipe organ and facilities for orchestral performances, as well as some ten halls of varying sizes for meetings and assemblages.
Palace of Horticulture:
The Palace of Horticulture will be constructed almost entirely of glass and will cover over five acres. It will be surmounted by a dome 150 feet in height; it will be 672 feet long and its greatest width will be 320 feet; an imposing nave 80 feet in height will run the length of the building, and paralleling the central nave there will be (one on either side) two side aisles, each fifty feet in height. It is designed by Messrs. Bakewell and Brown of San Francisco.
The Exposition Auditorium will be of steel and stone and will grace the Civic Center of San Francisco. It will be a lasting monument of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The Exposition management set aside $1,000,000 for its erection and the City and County of San Francisco paid $701,437.08 for the site. This structure will be four stories and the main auditorium will accommodate 12,000. Messrs. John Galen Howard, Frederick H. Meyer and John Reid, Jr., are the architects.
Palace of Machinery:
The Palace of Machinery is the largest building erected on the Exposition site. It is 968 by 368 feet. One mile and a half of cornices were used in ornamenting the building. Four carloads of nails and fifteen hundred tons of steel (bolts and washers) were used in its construction.
The numerous arched trusses supporting the lofty roof of this building are placed above the three longitudinal naves and have a span of 75 feet. These trusses weigh in the neighborhood of four tons each. Messrs. Ward and Blohme are the architects.
The California Building will be in the Old Mission style and was designed by George W. Kelham. It will cover approximately 3550 x 675 feet, - will be two stories in height and its construction and furnishings will represent an outlay of $500,000.
This will be the "Host Building" of the Exposition. It will also contain the exhibits of the 58 counties of California. The Building and park will cover approximately seven acres.
The Woman's Board has assumed the responsibility of furnishing and maintaining this building and will have entire charge of its social administration.
Tower of Jewels:
From an architectural viewpoint the dominating feature of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will be the great Tower of Jewels rising at the southern entrance to the Court of the Universe. This tower, designed by Messrs. Carrere and Hastings of New York, will be 433 feet in height.
The Court of the Universe:
The Court of the Universe will be seven hundred feet long and nine hundred feet wide. There will be a sunken garden in the center, and at the northern axis, between the Agricultural and Transportation Buildings, will be a great pool of water embellished with statuary and fountains and bordered by tropical growth. Messrs. McKim, Mead and White of New York are the designers.
The Court of Abundance:
The Court of Abundance, designed by Louis C. Mullgardt, will show the Oriental phase of the Spanish-Moorish architecture. The court will be dedicated to music, dancing and acting, and pageantry.
Court of the Four Seasons:
One of the most beautiful of the great inner courts of the Exposition will be the Court of the Four Seasons, or great west court. Hadrian's Villa, one of the historic Roman Palaces, is undoubtedly the inspiration for this court, which is designed by Mr. Henry Bacon of New York.
Classification of Exhibits:
The Division of Exhibits under the charge of the Director of Exhibits is composed of eleven Departments, each of which is in charge of a Chief. These Departments are as follows:
(a) Fine Arts, (b) Education, (c) Social Economy, (d) Liberal Arts, (e) Manufactures and Varied Industries, (f) Machinery, (g) Transportation, (h) Agriculture, (i) Live Stock, (k) Horticulture, (l) Mines and Metallurgy.
The classification is comprehensive and representative and has been reviewed by international authorities.
The exhibit Palaces, in which will be displayed the selected best examples of man's achievements in these fields of effort, form the main group of the Exposition buildings. They have aggregate floor space of 85 acres.
Space in these Exhibit Palaces is free to exhibitors, but a rigid selection will be exercised. Commercial articles manufactured prior to 1905 will not be considered for awards.
Exhibits by Departments:
The painting and sculpture of every nation of artistic prominence will be adequately shown in the Palace of Fine Arts, whether or not the nations themselves officially exhibit.
The exhibits in the United States Section will consist not only of the work of contemporary artists, but of historic American paintings from the time of West, Copley, and Stuart to the present, and a loan collection of canvasses by foreign artists owned in the United States.
The installation of the canvasses and small bronzes will be intimate and the color scheme of the galleries will vary to serve as a sympathetic background for their contents. Much of the monumental sculpture will be installed in a beautiful setting of shrubbery in front of the Palace.
The educational exhibits will show development since 1905 and by specializing on promising movements and reforms will seek to forecast the education of tomorrow. There will be a comparative exhibit of the educational systems of all nations participating and a comprehensive demonstration of educational work in the United States in all its phases from kindergarten to university.
A special effort will be made to show the relation that education has borne to the general industrial advance of the past ten years.
The Department of Social Economy will bring together a comprehensive collection of exhibits illustrative of the conditions, relations and institutions of man considered as a member of organized society and government, together with displays showing the agencies and means employed for his well being. As far as possible, operating examples will be given of all phases of the work for human betterment.
Child welfare will receive exhaustive treatment by exhibits of day nurseries in operation, public playgrounds, and the work of organizations such as boy-scouts, camp-fire girls, etc.
All phases of Charities and Corrections will be considered.
A separate group will be devoted to Criminology.
A very large exhibit will be made of urban problems such as the proper housing of the people, park systems, public buildings, street improvement, methods of disposing of sewage, etc. Rural problems will be treated in another group.
The relation of Finance to the public welfare will be illustrated by exhibits of its most important agencies such as banks and provident associations, modern credit associations, etc.
In the same way Commerce will be treated by exhibits showing co-operative enterprises; the different forms of the distribution of goods; business standards, methods of efficiency and systems.
The Labor group will contain exhibits illustrative of modern work conditions and standards, including welfare and efficiency. Domestic science and woman's vocations are embraced in this group.
For the reason that the completion of the Panama Canal was made possible only by the rigid application of the latest discoveries in Hygiene, this subject will be especially emphasized.
Methods of Missionary work and religious education will embrace exhibits by the various religious organizations.
The institutions of the great nations of the earth which tend to promote international and universal peace and good will between the governments and peoples, such as peace conferences and diplomatic and consular systems will receive a broad and sympathetic treatment by exhibitional studies Sand examples.
Liberal Arts rank high in the Classification of exhibits because they embrace the Applied Sciences which indicate the result of man's education and culture, illustrate his tastes, and demonstrate his inventive genius, scientific attainment and artistic expression.
The Department of Liberal Arts will occupy one entire building styled the Palace of Liberal Arts, centrally located and forming one of the leading elements in the main Exposition picture. This splendid Palace is directly opposite the main entrance to the Exposition Grounds and is approximately 585 feet long, 470 feet wide and 65 feet high, covering nearly six acres.
Manufactures and Varied Industries:
The Department of a Universal Exposition in which the nations of the earth are most certain to participate is the exhibition of finished products of manufacture and manual skill, the objects of utility, luxury and taste in which each country excels and which constitute the most valuable and profitable part of foreign commerce. Artistic work is the kind a nation shows with the greatest pride and satisfaction; and the art industries of Europe, the Orient, and the United States, will be brilliantly displayed in the Palaces of Manufactures and Varied Industries at the Exposition.
The exhibits will disclose new ideas of form and finish, of style and ornament, which will have an important educational and stimulative effect on taste and workmanship throughout the world. The plan of the two Palaces and adjacent courts and avenues is unique in Exposition construction; and the beautiful decoration of the interior of the buildings will add to the attractiveness of the displays.
In the great Palace of Machinery will be assembled exhibits of machinery used in the generation, transmission and application of power. The several groups will comprise examples of steam generators and motors utilizing steam; internal combustion motors; hydraulic motors; miscellaneous motors; general machinery and accessories; and tools for shaping wood and metals. To these will be added ten special electrical groups covering the generation, distribution and control of electrical energy in its application to mechanical and motor power, lighting, heating.
Special effort will be made to classify and display the exhibits of machinery so that they will have educational value to the public as well as to afford comparative interest and profit to inventors, machinists and manufacturers. The increasing use of electrical apparatus in the industries, vocations and affairs of life caused the management of the Exposition to abandon the use of separate building for Electricity and distribute the machinery and apparatus throughout the Palaces according to its use in the various industries.
As far as possible machinery will be shown in operation.
At this Exposition the Transportation Exhibit (like all others) will be made, as far as possible, contemporaneous, not historical. It will display the very latest achievements of human ingenuity in every part of the field of Transportation.
On account of the great development of the motor boat industry and aerial navigation these two groups will be thoroughly represented, both in the building and in outdoor exhibits. For exhibition purposes and for the general instruction of the public, the Aviation Field will offer opportunity for showing the rapid development in the art and science of the invasion of the air.
In this building will be shown the exhibits of all the great steamship companies; the water transportation of all countries; their navigation and commerce; characteristic boats of all nations; sail and steam yachts, to be generally shown by models.
The electric companies will show the latest application of electricity to the agency of transportation. A locomotive exhibit will illustrate the latest types; car exhibits will show the modern development of street car equipment; and there will be a complete showing of railway supplies, including all the new inventions and appliances used for the protection of life and property in this connection.
The section devoted to the interests of agriculture will embrace an area of more than forty acres. There will be a Palace of Agriculture, covering seven and a half acres.
The exhibits will deal with every possible phase of the agricultural industry. One of the most important of the many groups in the general agricultural classification is that devoted to farm implements and machinery. No less than seven distinct classes will be required, and the exhibits relative to this subject will be displayed in the Agricultural Palace instead of in a separate building as has been done in previous Expositions.
Under this same department, although in a separate Palace, the Exhibits of food products will be grouped. Vegetable and animal food products and the equipment and methods employed in the preparation of foods and beverages will be extensively shown.
In the agricultural department also will be shown all that pertains to forestry and forest products.
In keeping with the general plan of the Exposition the Department of Live Stock will be presented in a better phase than has heretofore characterized such exhibitions. Competitions for the $175,000 in prize money appropriated by the Exposition, and for the supplemental premiums offered by the breeders' associations will take place in the months of October and November. In addition to this there will be a continuous Live Stock display from February 20th to December 4th. In housing, arrangements of the classification and arrangements of the exhibits, the Department of Live Stock at San Francisco will demonstrate the advancement that has been made since former World Expositions.
Special events include Universal Polo, an International Cavalry Contest, two harness horse Racing Meets, and the carrying on of a series of demonstrations which will teach everything that is new in this important industry.
The exhibits in practical horticulture will embrace all phases of that section of the industry. A fully equipped fruit canning establishment will be in operation, showing the sanitary way in which fruit is prepared and canned. Every step of the process will be shown. A seed packing establishment, orange packing house, olive oil presses in operation and exhibits of tools used in the culture of fruits, trees and flowers, and objects used in ornamentation of the garden will make the exhibit in the Department of Horticulture complete in every detail.
The frostless climate of California, which enables plant life to attain the highest perfection of growth, will give the floricultural exhibit of the Exposition a distinction and beauty it has not been possible to attain at other expositions where the seasons have been short and the winters severe. New creations and heretofore unexhibited varieties will form a feature of surprise and interest such as has never before been assembled in one exhibit. Leading growers and nurserymen all over the world have already signified their intention to participate in the general display as well as in the Rose Contest.
The Exposition offers as trophy a $1000 cup to the originator of the finest new seedling rose which has never before been exhibited.
Growers of rare green-house plants and exhibitors from tropical countries will assemble in the Conservatory section a wealth of unrivaled exotic beauty.
Mines and Metallurgy:
The Department of Mines and Metallurgy deals with the natural mineral resources of the world, their exploration and exploitation, their conversion into metal, their manufacture into structural forms and into raw material for the various industries. It takes in the ordinary metallics, such as gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, etc.; the rare metallics, such as tungsten, vanadium, uranium, radium, platinum, etc.; the non-metallics, such as clay, cement and their products; coal, oil and gas; the salines, fertilizers, etc.
The object of the Mines and Metallurgy exhibit is twofold: First, to draw attention to the natural mineral resources of each country, state or community, so that the public may learn of the mode of occurrence of the metals of commerce and their distribution, of the stage of development of the various districts, of present sources of supply and consumption and of possible future sources of supply and of extended markets. Second, to educate the public in a general way regarding the details of the industry, its problems and its needs.
Exhibits of the natural mineral resources will be attractively arranged, with special regard to their educational value. A special effort will be made to fully illustrate the technique and the industrial side of Mining and Metallurgy. Machinery plays an important part in the operating, and reduction end of mining; in the section devoted to mining and metallurgical machinery many interesting and instructive exhibits will be made of machinery and processes in operation.
Information for Exhibitors:
Qualified exhibitor will be those corporations, firms or individuals who have produced the article, object, or material exhibited. Those who have importantly aided or co-operated in such production may be given proportionate consideration.
To encourage the exhibiting of machinery in motion, an especially low rate for motor current is made for exhibitors.
This is a contemporaneous Exposition. Commercial articles manufactured prior to 1905 will not be reviewed for award. Historical material will be given no award value.
The country where an exhibit is produced and not the citizenship of the exhibitor, will determine the nationality of the exhibit.
The entire space in all the Palaces is free to exhibitors. It is about equally divided in each between the United States and foreign nations. Domestic space is allotted by the Division of Exhibits directly to exhibitors. Space in the foreign sections is allotted to individual exhibitors by the Foreign Commissions of the respective countries.
Ground space is allotted by the Exposition to foreign nations, states and territories of the United States, and the national government, and is free.
The main exhibition palaces will be opened to visitors at nine o'clock a. m. each day and will be closed at the hour of sunset, except the Art Palace, which, at stated times, may be open after sunset.
Delivery and Installation:
The delivery and installation of exhibits have been made a special study by the Exposition Management.
Exhibits of every character from every part of the world may be landed directly at the special docks on the Exposition grounds. The same facilities will be offered in the case of railway shipments, which will enable cars to be lightered direct from the various tidewater terminals of the railroads to the Exposition. Furthermore, there will be railroad tracks about the grounds and into the buildings, and ample openings will be provided in the buildings to admit large exhibits.
Exhibits may be consigned directly to the space to be occupied, through a Terminal Company which is incorporated within the Exposition Company for receiving and transferring exhibits. This will relieve the exhibitor of any necessity of handling his exhibit further than to consign it to the President of the Exposition. Exhibits will be handled at published tariff rates, and there will be no annoyance from many small charges incident to transferring material from the trunk lines to the exhibit building which it is to occupy. These matters are under charge of the Traffic Department.
The Traffic Department is preparing data for a book entitled, "Traffic Rules and Regulations." This book, when completed, will show available routes and the basis of rates to San Francisco on exhibits from all parts of the world. It will give full instructions concerning customs regulations of the United States Government on exhibits, and will also enumerate the various transportation lines, both rail and water, throughout the country, that have announced special rates on exhibits. It will also contain full instructions regarding the delivery of exhibits to allotted space; the storage of packing cases, etc. Full instructions will also be given pertaining to the return of exhibits, at the close of the Exposition to their point of origin.
The main Amusement Street will be 3000 feet in length and will run through the center of the concessions district. This district will be sixty-five acres in area, on the eastern edge of the Exposition site, at the foot of Van Ness Avenue extending to Fillmore Street. It will be open from 9:30 A. M. until 11:00 o'clock P. M.
More than 6000 applications for concessions have been received, but less than 100 have been accepted. These involve an expenditure of $6,800,000.
The Amusement concessions have been granted with the most rigid selectiveness. Everyone admitted has satisfied a high standard of propriety, good taste and educational value as well as effective fun-making and entertainment.
More than 7000 people will be employed in the concessions district. The total investment in amusements will exceed ten millions of dollars.
Conventions and Congresses:
The Exposition has organized a "Bureau of Conventions and Societies" to have charge of all arrangements for Conventions and Congresses to meet in San Francisco in 1915. This work will be under the following general heads:
1. National and international gatherings held under the auspices of particular societies.
2. Learned Societies.
4. Information as to hotels, transportation routes and rates, as well as places of interest throughout the Pacific Coast.
The Bureau will furnish full and accurate information regarding hotel rates and facilities, halls, transportation routes and rates, and such other information as may be desired by organizations planning to meet in San Francisco in 1915.
This Department is under the active management of Major Sydney A. Cloman, United States Army, who has been detailed for this purpose by the War Department.
The Exposition grounds are ideally located for both military and naval displays and the serious study of all matters pertaining to any branch of those services.
Across the Golden Gate on the Marin Hills frown the highest seacoast batteries in the United States. On the west is the Presidio, the ancient Spanish stronghold, now a most important army post of the United States, containing a large garrison of cavalry, artillery, infantry, and the technical and staff corps. Here military work is practically continuous.
An International Military Tournament will be held. Organizations from many foreign armies, the organized militia of our various states, military schools and cadet corps will compete. Competitions will also be arranged between the uniform ranks of the various fraternal societies.
Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, has expressed his intention of sending the Atlantic Fleet through the Panama Canal and thence to the Exposition in 1915.
The Naval participation at this Exposition promises to surpass all previous events of its kind, as there is every assurance that the nations of the world will send their battleships to the Exposition shortly after the gates are opened. England, France, and Italy have already stated, in response to the invitation sent out by the President of the United States, that they will send squadrons.
The Official "Bureau of Information and Public Service:"
The Exposition has organized an efficient "Bureau of Information and Public Service," which all inquirers are invited to use freely and, of course, free of charge.
San Francisco is second only to New York in the number and quality of her hotel accommodations. At present there are over 2,000 hotels and apartment houses in San Francisco. This number is supplemented by the many up-to-date hostelries of the trans-bay cities of Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda. Very reasonable rates are in force and the hotel association has assured the Exposition officials that these rates will prevail during the Exposition period. Rooms occupied by one person may be obtained in San Francisco by the day from $1.00 up. Rooms with baths, $1.50 up. San Francisco is noted for the number and variety of her restaurants, where substantial meals can be obtained from 25c to $1.00. It is generally conceded that, quality for quality, the San Francisco restaurant prices are from 20 per cent to 40 per cent below those of New York City. The visitor to the Panama-Pacific Universal Exposition can be assured of the fact that he will not be over-charged by the hotels and restaurants. He can live on the fat of the land and that at a price well within his means.
A great Exposition hotel to be erected in the grounds will make a specialty of catering to visitors to the Exposition. The Inside Inn will be commodious, with a standard of quality equal to first-class city hotels. It will be located in a beautiful and central spot adjacent to the Exposition Palaces and San Francisco Bay. The rates will range from $1.00 to $10.00 per day for each person (European Plan), according to size and location of rooms. Parties, either of women or men, may be accommodated at very reasonable rates in rooms containing several beds. Breakfast will be served for 50c, luncheon 50c, and dinner $1.00. Meals will also be served a la carte. In addition there will be a ladies' grill, a gentlemen's cafe, a lunch room and private dining rooms.
The Inside Inn, being within the Exposition grounds, will be subject to the rules and regulations of the Exposition, and no abuses or over-charges will be permitted.
So that, with over 2,000 hotels and apartment houses already built and dozens more going up, the accommodations in the trans-bay cities, and the spacious Inside Inn, there will be ample room for the millions of visitors expected in 1915.
The Woman's Board is organizing a comprehensive system of welfare work, one which will include a traveler's aid department, information bureau and domicile registers. It will mean that any woman of any country may come to San Francisco during the Exposition and rest assured of protection. The organization will include representatives of every nationality and every religion.
Seeing San Francisco:
San Francisco in itself is a wonderful exposition as to what man can accomplish in the building of a city. The entire business section and a great part of the residence section has been beautifully and strongly re-built at a total cost of just about what it has taken to dig the Panama Canal - $375,000,000. The visitor to the Exposition can well afford to spend another week, taking in the beauties and wonderful sights of San Francisco - its Golden Gate Park, Golden Gate, Seal Rocks, splendid harbor, markets, military reservations, Old Mission, Chinatown, Italian section, shipping, wharves, etc.
Wonderful Side Trips:
With San Francisco as a center, the visitor has the opportunity of making some easy side trips to places of interest and the wonders of California - as Stanford University at Palo Alto, University of California at Berkeley, the Mare Island Navy Yard, Mt. Tamalpais, with its "crookedest railway in the world;" the Muir Redwoods, Piedmont Springs, Lake Merritt, and the Ocean Boulevard automobile drive, and the great interior valleys of California with their golden harvest of fruit, and a little further afield, the unique, awe-inspiring Yosemite Valley, Lake Tahoe and the beautiful, snow-capped Mount Shasta.
San Francisco offers a cool coast summer climate with no rain; a winter climate without snow, ice, or blizzard.
The annual mean temperature of San Francisco is 56 degrees Fahrenheit. September is the warmest, and January, the coldest month. The mean temperature of September is 59.1 degrees, and of January 49.2. In the last 20 years there have been only 27 days during which the temperature exceeded 90 degrees, and in the same period it has not fallen below 32 degrees, the freezing point. The differences between day and night temperatures are small. The warmest hour, 2 p. m., has a mean temperature of 59.2, and the coolest hour, 6 a. m., has a mean temperature of 50.9 degrees.
The following shows the average number of rainy days during the months of the Exposition period, the data being taken from official records covering 62 years: March, 11 rainy days; April, 6; May, 4; June, 1; July, 0; August, 0; September, 2; October, 4; November, 7.
Important Hint on Clothing:
Visitors to San Francisco from Eastern, Middle Western and Southern States should note the average temperatures stated above and prepare in conformity thereto. The temperature of San Francisco practically the year around is about that of middle April or early May in New York, London or Chicago. Do not come clad for a hot Eastern summer. Light overcoats and wraps are always in demand in the evening. From April to November umbrellas may safely be left at home.
The Exposition will open on time. All the Divisions are working in full force. The Palace of Machinery is nearly completed, and the other Exhibit Palaces are under construction by time contracts, and will be ready for occupancy by August, 1914. The grounds are being made ready. Thousands of shrubs and plants and groves of trees are being transplanted. The Statuary is being molded in great workshops on the grounds from models by world-renowned sculptors. The designs of the Mural Paintings by celebrated masters in the art are in hand. The Exhibit space is already oversubscribed and the selective work in process. Some of the leading amusement attractions are now being installed. The exploitation of the enterprise goes forward in all the principal nations of the earth. The outlook is bright for one of the greatest Universal Expositions in history, and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will open February 20th, 1915.
Plan now to Visit this great Exposition.